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  • Digital Communications

    A great number of exciting new digital operating modes have developed, largely because of the availability of personal computers, soundcards, and advanced software. But amateur digital communication began in earnest in the late 1940's (if you don't count Morse as a digital mode!) when hams worked out techniques of connecting mechanical Teletype keyboard/printers to amateur gear using FSK and AFSK modulation. WSJT has become a very popular tool for digital communications. FSK441 mode is in use for meteor scatter contacts and JT65 is popular for terrestrial communications.

  • EME Moonbounce

    Amateur radio (ham) operators utilize EME for two-way communications. EME presents significant challenges to amateur operators interested in working weak signal communications. Currently, EME provides the longest communications path any two stations on Earth can utilize for bi-directional communications. Amateur operations use VHF, UHF and microwave frequencies. All amateur frequency bands from 50 MHz to 47 GHz have been used successfully, but most EME communications are on the 2 meter, 70-centimeter, or 23-centimeter bands. Common modulation modes utilized by amateurs are continuous wave with Morse Code, digital (JT65) and when the link budgets allow, voice..

  • Aurora and Solar Weather

    The interaction between Earth's magnetic field and Solar particles is a complex and mysterious field of science. The storm events involve high electric currents in the ionosphere and vast amounts electric power affecting to great many things. One of the ways to observe what is happening up there, is to detect the effects of these phenomena to non ionizing long wave electromagnetic radiation - radio waves.

  • VHF Contesting and Rover Operations

    Hams have been putting stations in their cars since the Twenties (1920's that is). Today, there is great satisfaction in facing the challenge of installing a transceiver in our small cars and pick-ups, using somewhat inefficient antennas, and still being able to make contacts with hams thousands of miles away while "tooling" down the highway.

  • Annual Technical Conference

    Every year since 1968, during the last weekend in July, the Central States VHF Society hosts an annual technical conference. There are two days of technical presentations, antenna range gain measurements, noise figure measurements, a flea market, and often times a vendor area. It's a great time to learn about weak signal VHF communications and an excellent place to network and catch up with old friends.

**-Central States VHF Society

Exploring the World Above 50MHz since 1965

1996 Antenna Gain Results

1996 Antenna Gain Results

Tested in Bloomington, MN - July 26, 1996


144 MHzCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
WB0DGF215 DX 15 el 28 ftCom'l14.2
WA2VOI12 el Yagi 2M12Com'l12.9
WB0GGM14' Boom 12 elHB12.6
N0AKC10 el K5GW 17 ft boomHB12.5
WB0GGM12 el 14' boomHB12.1
WA9HCZ9 el Yagi 15 ft boomHB12.0
WB9SNR7 el YagiCom'l9.5
WB0TEM*8 el Higain Yagi*Com'l9.0
N0NAS4 el YagiHB7.5
220 MHZCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
WA2PHW16 el 17' boomHB13.8
WB9SNR14 el KLMCom'l13.2
WB0TEM*13 el Yagi*HB13.2
KB5UBE4 el YagiHB7.8
WA5VJB4 el Moon-RabbitHB7.2
KB5UBE5 el YagiHB6.8
432 MHZCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
WA2PHW38 el YagiHB18.1
WA2PHW31 el YagiHB17.7
KA0RYT24 el K1FOHB16.1
WB0GGM24 el Yagi 17 ft boomHB15.9
WB0TEMModif K2RIW16 elHB15.3
KA0RYTCuschcraft 7-19BCom'l15.0
WB0TEM*19 el K2RIW Yagi*HB14.9
WA9HCZ15 el YagiHB14.7
WB9SNR19 el K2RIWHB14.5
WA6FPX16 el Ant #3HB14.1
WA6FPX16 el Yagi Ant #2HB13.8
WA6FPX11 el Ant #1HB11.6
KE9QT8 el QuagiHB11.4
W9HLYAF9Y HelixHB9.9
WA5VJB5 el Moon RabbitCom'l6.9
N0ZKKBig WheelHB4.1
W3XOPhase 3D Patch AntHB3.0
KK5DKK5LLL Big WheelHB1.8
W3XO2 el 1/2 YagiHB1.6
K9FYVLog PeriodicCom'l.9
902 MHzCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
N9LHDEAC 800-940 MHz Corner ReflectorCom'l12.7
WA5VJB8 el Moon-rabbitHB10.1
W6OAL11 turn HelixHB9.5
W0AUS15 elHB8.7
WA2VOINarda 15RHCom'l7.8
WA5VJB*4 Element Yagi, Reference Antenna*Com'l7.5
W0UCCreate LPCom'l7.1
N8EHAConical sprialCom'l5.6
K5LLLBig WheelHB1.5
1296 MHzCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
W0OZIDual rhomboidHB17.3
KB0PYOM2 35 elCom'l16.6
W3XOShort backfireHB14.6
WA2VOINarda 15RHCom'l13.8
WA5VJB*10 el yagi, Reference Antenna*HB13.5
W6OAL11 turn helixHB12.4 dbic
WA5VJB9 el MoonrabbitHB12.1
DJ9HODual quad/reflectorCom'l11.3
DJ9HODual feed loop/refelectorCom'l10.7
N8KWXDual coffee canHB9.7
W0UCCreate LPCom'l9.1
K9FYV6 el End-fireHB8.0
W6OALYagi 6 el w/VJB feedHB7.5
N8EHAConical SprialCom'l4.7
K9FYVConical SprialCom'l2.5
K9FYVLog periodicCom'l.5
2304 MHzCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
W0UC4' dish 0.33 F/D WA3RMX feedHB22.4
WB9SNR30" dish w/coffee can feedHB19.2
WB9SNR30" dish w/Tri-band feedHB17.8
N9LHDLance 36" MMDS/ITFS gridCom'l15.0
N9LHD2' dish WA3RMX feedHB14.6
WA5VJB*Narda Std Gain Horn, Reference Antenna*Com'l13.4
DJ9HODish Feed 23/13 loop/refelectorCom'l8.9
3456 MHzCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
W0UC4' solid dish .33 F/D w/WA3RMX feedHB24.6
WB9SNR30" dish w/Tri-band feedHB24.0
WB9SNR30" dish WG-N adapter feed HP-G281AHB24.0
K0FQA2' dishHB21.8
N9LHD2' dish w/WA3RMX feedHB17.4
WA5VJB*Narda Std Gain Horn, Reference Antenna*Com'l16.8
WB0DGFSquare Patch edge feedHB8.3
N8EHAConical sprialCom'l4.8
5760 MHzCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
WB9SNR30" dish WG-N adapter feed HP-G281AHB29.3
WB9SNR30" dish Cu pipe feedHB28.5
W0UC4' solid dish .33 F/D WA3RMX feedHB27.7
N9LHD2' dish WA3RMX feedHB24.6
WB9SNR30" dish w/Tri-band feedHB23.4
WA5VJB*Narda Std Gain Horn, Reference Antenna*Com'l15.5
N8EHAConical sprialCom'l-4.5
10 GHzCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
WB9SNR30" w/Cu pipe feedHB34.8
N9LHDDipole feed in 2' solid reflectorHB30.3
WA5VJB*Horn, Reference Antenna*HB17.7
WA8WZG4" x 4" x 3.4" hornHB16.9
24 GHzCallDesignHB/Com'lGain (dBd)
N9LHDHorn on ass'ym button hookCom'l35.8
N9LHD1cm splach feed w/ 1 penny feedHB34.8
N9LHDButton hook #1Com'l33.3
N9LHDButton hook #2Com'l32.3
WA5VJB*Microwave Assoc. Horn, Reference Antenna*Com'l20.7

* Indicates Reference Antenna

Measurements were made on the 902-24GHz were made by WA5VJB.

Measurements were made on the 144 MHz - 432 MHz by WB0ETM

Assisting on the both ranges were W0AUS, K0GCJ, W0BJ, WB0GGM, WA2PHW, WB0HXY and KC0QR.